Fish farmers have in freshwater shrimp farming an option to obtain good income. Without limiting the coast, the practice in the ponds allows the fumigation activity to be quick, which reduces logistics costs and gets more competitive prices for the product sales in the local market.
Small producers with little experience can still benefit from creating what is a source of extra income. Dealing with freshwater shrimp does not have many requirements and can be managed in an unpretentious location, provided that conditions are appropriate, such as space for an aquatic environment and water temperature above 20°C for at least six consecutive months.
In captivity, it is common to use excavated ponds with natural earthen bottoms, an area where the crayfish live and also feed. Without effective drainage systems, dikes and dams are discarded options, because they have to be emptied to make the total elimination of the shrimp and their removal from all shrimp at the end of the fattening period. However, if you do not have the property, the construction of the tanks should require a recovery of the invested capital in the long term.
Flat land with clay soil and water availability and quality are other important factors for successful management. The breeding of these crustaceans is also well adapted to integrated fish farming, diversification of production and increased market opportunities.
Essential factors for freshwater shrimp farming include water temperature and quality, topography, soil type, breeding, reproduction and other very important factors to be taken into account.
Among the factors considered essential for freshwater shrimp farming, there are water temperature conditions, good water availability, topographic location, soil type and others. Besides these technical requirements, the logistic situation must also be considered, such as: market studies, local infrastructure, access, labor, among others.
Therefore, for the investment to be successful and prosperous, the producer must take into account the following technical requirements:
1. Quality of shrimp larvae to be raised. Try to obtain very good quality larvae, which are resistant to diseases and which in their adult state can reach a good size if they have been given the required food and care.
2. Reproduction. Reproduction also begins in fresh water. However, the larvae generated by the females must be kept in brackish water for 40 days until they undergo metamorphosis, which allows their release into fresh water ponds.
3. Local temperature. The larval process is technically complex and is directly connected to the temperature factor. It is therefore recommended, above all, that a study of the local monthly temperatures, including the period of the past year, be carried out so that two or three harvests per year can be obtained.
4. Topography. As far as topography is concerned, land with a gentle slope up to 2% is recommended, since they represent the greatest economy in the construction of nurseries.
5. Soil. The most usable soil is that with clay content between 30% and 70%. Very sandy soils provide excessive infiltration, making it difficult to maintain pond water. Already very clayey soils can create cracks that cause water to drain into the parts of tracks.
6. Post-larvae. While it can be encouraged by small producers, it is recommended for beginners to purchase post-larvae from the commercial laboratories of the first shrimp farming ponds they make.
7. Costs. The investment costs are calculated according to the structure of the company. The entrepreneur, to start this type of business, must have enough capital to implement the following steps:
Facilities and equipment: calculated according to the amount of hectare that has the water project.
Operation cost: varies according to each kilogram of shrimp produced. In addition, it is desirable to have a reserve fund to pay the company’s bills until it is formed into sufficient working capital to bear its own costs.
8. Consumer market. The consumer market is very diverse; one could mention supermarket chains, hotels, restaurants and specialized fish stores. It is a noble product, with an excellent acceptance in national and foreign markets.
9. The manual work. It is suggested to hire an employee to maintain the cultural care, that is to say, for the feeding (done 1 or 2 times a day), the biometry (taken once or twice a month), the follow-up of the nursery and verification of the temperature, the pH and the transparency of the water (done fresh every day).
Fresh water shrimp is a noble product, with an excellent acceptance in national and foreign markets
10. Necessary equipment. For a shrimp farming project none can work without a minimum infrastructure, capable of satisfying the needs of general production, as well as its peculiarities.
Thus, some simple tools are indispensable:
- – Disco Secchi: the measurement of water transparency;
- – Thermometer: measurement of water temperature;
- – oximeter: measurement of dissolved oxygen in water, or kits for chemical analysis of dissolved oxygen;
- – peachimetro: used to measure the pH of the water;
- – Fishing nets: used during harvesting; also used in biometry (monitoring the evolution in weight and feeding length);
- – Screen saver : protects the shrimp in and out from predators.
11. Productivity. The productivity values of the activity will depend on the regional climatic conditions and the type of farming system used (single-phase, two-phase or three-phase).
12. Value of net and gross monthly sales. The value of sales and gross monthly income varies according to the product standard and the type of market (wholesale or retail).
13. Registration with the fish farmer. The shrimp grower must apply for the registration as a fish farmer in the corresponding institute of his country. To obtain such registration, the applicant must comply with certain requirements, including the environmental permit and the concession of the use of water resources.